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April 9, 2017 Weekly Geology Guest, Sapphire

April 8, 2017
Greetings from the Bluff Park Back Porch, way up yonder on Shades Mountain (1,109′) in Alabama:

We will start the Segment 1 with Gems.  For this week we will crawl out from underneath mountains to look at corundum, sapphires.

 

NOVA, Treasures of the Earth

http://www.pbs.org/video/2365886855/

3.    NOVA, Treasures of the Earth, Power (Fossil Fuels).

http://www.pbs.org/video/2365892300/

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Corundum

Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.[2][3] It is a rock-forming mineral. It is a naturally transparent material, but can have different colors when impurities are present. Transparent specimens are used as gems, called “ruby” if red and “padparadscha” if pink-orange. All other colors are called “sapphire“, e.g., “green sapphire” for a green specimen.  Because of corundum’s hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9.0 on the Mohs scale), it can scratch almost every other mineral.

Corundum

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Sapphire

Sapphire is a gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide (α-Al2O3). It is typically blue in color, but natural “fancy” sapphires also occur in yellow, purple, orange, and green colors; “parti sapphires” show two or more colors. The only color which sapphire cannot be is red – as red colored corundum is called ruby,[2] another corundum variety. This variety in color is due to trace amounts of elements such as iron, titanium,

>    Search:  NOVA, Treasures of the Earth, corundum, sapphire.
Wow!  too many pretty sapphires to chose from.
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References include:

 

–    Wikipedia
–    PBS, NOVA > Treasures of the Earth.
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Editors Note:  It is the intent of this site to keep this discussion as simple as possible, so as to educate the interested general public and not to discuss with the geology crowd the latest geologic theories and nuances.  Thanks, R
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“No copyright infringement intended.
The rights belong to their respective owners”

Copyright Disclaimer: Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.

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Author’s Request:  If you see any pictures that you know the source and photographer, let me know immediately.  Thanks!  R

Images have been searched by TinEye Reverse Image Search.  http://tineye.com/
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Next week I will crawl underneath some mountain ranges to look at rubies (corundum).
 
Enjoy the adventure!
Thanks!
R
1. Corundum-sapphires, uncut

1. Corundum-sapphires, uncut

2. Corundum, Sapphire, 1szafir_Madagaskar. 2006. klluka

2. Corundum, Sapphire, 1szafir_Madagaskar. 2006. klluka

3. Corundum, Sapphire, 72.9c. Graves hill, Australia. Amazing Geologist. cr. Oliver Waldis

3. Corundum, Sapphire, 72.9c. Graves hill, Australia. Amazing Geologist. cr. Oliver Waldis

4. Sapphire Crystal, 2.25in, 231 c., Sri Lanka

4. Sapphire Crystal, 2.25in, 231 c., Sri Lanka

5. Corundum, Sapphire, rough-cut. Ceylon. www.johnjbradshaw. com

5. Corundum, Sapphire, rough-cut. Ceylon. http://www.johnjbradshaw. com

6. World's largest blue star sapphire 'found in Sri Lanka, 1404c. 300M. geology.com

6. World’s largest blue star sapphire ‘found in Sri Lanka, 1404c. 300M. geology.com

7. Corundum, Logan Sapphire. 422.99c. Museum of Natural History, Chip Clark

7. Corundum, Logan Sapphire. 422.99c. Museum of Natural History, Chip Clark

8. Corundum. 182 carat Star of Bombary Saphire. Sri Lanka. Smithsonian. from Pinterest

8. Corundum. 182 carat Star of Bombary Saphire. Sri Lanka. Smithsonian. from Pinterest

9. Corundum, Padparadscha sapphire. Alextryan talk. public domain

9. Corundum, Padparadscha sapphire. Alextryan talk. public domain

10. Corundum, Pink Sapphire and Diamond Ring. by unknown, Public Domain

10. Corundum, Pink Sapphire and Diamond Ring. by unknown, Public Domain

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